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Research Article

Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves

  • Maris Hindrikson,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Peep Männil,

    Affiliation: Estonian Environment Information Centre, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Janis Ozolins,

    Affiliation: State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Salaspils, Latvia

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  • Andrzej Krzywinski,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Park Kadzidlowo, Ruciane Nida, Poland

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  • Urmas Saarma mail

    Urmas.Saarma@ut.ee

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Published: October 03, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046465

About the Authors

Maris Hindrikson, Urmas Saarma
Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Peep Männil
Estonian Environment Information Centre, Tartu, Estonia
Janis Ozolins
State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Salaspils, Latvia
Andrzej Krzywinski
Wildlife Park Kadzidlowo, Ruciane Nida, Poland

Corresponding Author

Email: Urmas.Saarma@ut.ee

Competing Interests

AK is an employee of Wildlife Park Kadzidlowo who played a role in the data collection and analysis of the manuscript. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MH PM JO AK US. Performed the experiments: MH AK. Analyzed the data: MH PM JO AK US. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MH PM JO AK US. Wrote the paper: MH US.