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Research Article

Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

  • Sanjay Rampal equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sanjay Rampal, Sanjiv Mahadeva

    Affiliations: Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Department of Epidemiology and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Sanjiv Mahadeva equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sanjay Rampal, Sanjiv Mahadeva

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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  • Eliseo Guallar,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Area of Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Population Genetics, National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain

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  • Awang Bulgiba,

    Affiliation: Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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  • Rosmawati Mohamed,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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  • Ramlee Rahmat,

    Affiliation: Ministry of Health, Putrajaya, Malaysia

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  • Mohamad Taha Arif,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sarawak Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia

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  • Lekhraj Rampal mail

    rampal@medic.upm.edu.my

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

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  • Published: September 28, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046365

About the Authors

Sanjay Rampal, Awang Bulgiba
Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Sanjay Rampal, Eliseo Guallar
Department of Epidemiology and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Sanjiv Mahadeva, Rosmawati Mohamed
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Eliseo Guallar
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Eliseo Guallar
Area of Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Population Genetics, National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain
Ramlee Rahmat
Ministry of Health, Putrajaya, Malaysia
Mohamad Taha Arif
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sarawak Malaysia, Sarawak, Malaysia
Lekhraj Rampal
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding Author

Email: rampal@medic.upm.edu.my

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SR RR MTA LR. Performed the experiments: LR SR RR MTA. Analyzed the data: SR SM EG LR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LR. Wrote the paper: SR SM EG AB RM RR MTA LR.