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Research Article

Temperament Traits and Chronic Pain: The Association of Harm Avoidance and Pain-Related Anxiety

  • Peter Knaster mail,

    peter.knaster@dr.com

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Ann-Mari Estlander,

    Affiliation: Pain Clinic, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Hasse Karlsson,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jaakko Kaprio,

    Affiliation: Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Eija Kalso

    Affiliation: Pain Clinic, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Published: October 25, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045672

About the Authors

Peter Knaster, Hasse Karlsson
Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Ann-Mari Estlander, Eija Kalso
Pain Clinic, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Jaakko Kaprio
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Corresponding Author

Email: peter.knaster@dr.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EK AME JK PK HK. Performed the experiments: PK. Analyzed the data: PK JK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EK AME PK. Wrote the paper: PK.