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Research Article

Concurrent Conditions in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Population–Based Study

  • Gaurav Arora,

    Affiliation: Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

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  • Ajitha Mannalithara,

    Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Alka Mithal,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

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  • George Triadafilopoulos,

    Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Gurkirpal Singh mail

    gsingh@stanford.edu

    Affiliations: Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

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  • Published: October 12, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042910

About the Authors

Gaurav Arora
Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America
Ajitha Mannalithara, George Triadafilopoulos, Gurkirpal Singh
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Alka Mithal, Gurkirpal Singh
Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Outcomes Research and Education, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: gsingh@stanford.edu

Competing Interests

This research was supported in part by a research grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Deerfield, Illinois. The authors have delared no other competing interests exist. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GA A. Mannalithara A. Mithal GT GS. Performed the experiments: GA A. Mannalithara A. Mithal GT GS. Analyzed the data: GA A. Mannalithara GT GS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GA A. Mannalithara A. Mithal GT GS. Wrote the paper: GA A. Mannalithara A. Mithal GT GS.