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Research Article

HIV-1 Envelope Resistance to Proteasomal Cleavage: Implications for Vaccine Induced Immune Responses

  • Nicholas J. Steers,

    Affiliations: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Silvia Ratto-Kim,

    Affiliations: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark S. de Souza,

    Affiliation: Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Jeffrey R. Currier,

    Affiliations: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America, Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    Current address: Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jerome H. Kim,

    Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Nelson L. Michael,

    Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Carl R. Alving,

    Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mangala Rao mail

    mrao@hivresearch.org

    Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: August 06, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042579

About the Authors

Nicholas J. Steers, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Jeffrey R. Currier, Jerome H. Kim, Nelson L. Michael, Carl R. Alving, Mangala Rao
United States Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America
Nicholas J. Steers, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Jeffrey R. Currier
Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Mark S. de Souza
Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand

Corresponding Author

Email: mrao@hivresearch.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NJS SRK MSS MR. Performed the experiments: NJS SRK MSS. Analyzed the data: NJS SRK MSS MR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JRC JHK NLM CRA. Wrote the paper: NJS MR.