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Research Article

Correlation between In Vivo Biofilm Formation and Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O104:H4

  • Rim Al Safadi,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Galeb S. Abu-Ali,

    Affiliation: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Rudolph E. Sloup,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • James T. Rudrik,

    Affiliation: Michigan Department of Community Health, Bureau of Laboratories, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Christopher M. Waters,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Kathryn A. Eaton,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Shannon D. Manning mail

    mannin71@msu.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Published: July 25, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041628

About the Authors

Rim Al Safadi, Rudolph E. Sloup, Christopher M. Waters, Shannon D. Manning
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Galeb S. Abu-Ali
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America
James T. Rudrik
Michigan Department of Community Health, Bureau of Laboratories, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Kathryn A. Eaton
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mannin71@msu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SDM RA GSA RES JTR CMW KAE. Performed the experiments: RA RES KAE. Analyzed the data: SDM RA GSA RES CMW KAE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GSA JTR CMW KAE. Wrote the paper: SDM RA GSA RES JTR CMW KAE.