Advertisement
Research Article

Were Multiple Stressors a ‘Perfect Storm’ for Northern Gulf of Mexico Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in 2011?

  • Ruth H. Carmichael mail,

    rcarmichael@disl.org

    Affiliations: University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • William M. Graham,

    Affiliations: University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, United States of America

    X
  • Allen Aven,

    Affiliations: University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America, Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Graham Worthy,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States of America

    X
  • Stephan Howden

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, United States of America

    X
  • Published: July 18, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041155

About the Authors

Ruth H. Carmichael, William M. Graham, Allen Aven
University Programs, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, Alabama, United States of America
Ruth H. Carmichael, William M. Graham, Allen Aven
Department of Marine Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, United States of America
Stephan Howden
Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, United States of America
Graham Worthy
Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rcarmichael@disl.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RHC WMG. Performed the experiments: RHC WMG GW SH. Analyzed the data: RHC WMG AA GW SH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RHC GW SH. Wrote the paper: RHC WMG AA GW SH.