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Research Article

The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detritivores of Coral Reefs: The Parrotfishes and Surgeonfishes

  • Mia T. Comeros-Raynal mail,

    mcome003@odu.edu

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • John Howard Choat,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

    X
  • Beth A. Polidoro,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Kendall D. Clements,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

    X
  • Rene Abesamis,

    Affiliation: Silliman University, Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    X
  • Matthew T. Craig,

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America

    X
  • Muhammad Erdi Lazuardi,

    Affiliation: Conservation International, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    X
  • Jennifer McIlwain,

    Affiliation: Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

    X
  • Andreas Muljadi,

    Affiliation: Coral Triangle Center, Sanur, Bali, Indonesia

    X
  • Robert F. Myers,

    Affiliation: Coral Graphics, Wellington, Florida, United States of America

    X
  • Cleto L. Nañola Jr.,

    Affiliation: College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines

    X
  • Shinta Pardede,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Indonesia Marine Program, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

    X
  • Luiz A. Rocha,

    Affiliation: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Barry Russell,

    Affiliation: School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Charles Darwin University, c/- Arafura Timor Research Facility, Brinkin, Northern Territory, Australia

    X
  • Jonnell C. Sanciangco,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Brian Stockwell,

    Affiliation: Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Heather Harwell,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Kent E. Carpenter

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Published: July 11, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039825

About the Authors

Mia T. Comeros-Raynal, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco, Heather Harwell, Kent E. Carpenter
IUCN Species Programme/SSC Marine Biodiversity Unit-Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America
John Howard Choat
School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Kendall D. Clements
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Rene Abesamis
Silliman University, Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines
Matthew T. Craig
Department of Marine Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
Muhammad Erdi Lazuardi
Conservation International, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Jennifer McIlwain
Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Andreas Muljadi
Coral Triangle Center, Sanur, Bali, Indonesia
Robert F. Myers
Coral Graphics, Wellington, Florida, United States of America
Cleto L. Nañola Jr.
College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines
Shinta Pardede
Wildlife Conservation Society, Indonesia Marine Program, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Luiz A. Rocha
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Barry Russell
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Charles Darwin University, c/- Arafura Timor Research Facility, Brinkin, Northern Territory, Australia
Brian Stockwell
Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mcome003@odu.edu

Competing Interests

One of the co-authors, RFM, is employed by a commercial company (Coral Graphics); however, this does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MCR JHC BAP KDC KEC. Performed the experiments: MCR JHC BAP KDC RA MTC MEL JM AM RFM CLN SP LAR BR JCS BS HH KEC. Analyzed the data: MCR JHC BAP KDC JCS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JHC BAP KDC RA MTC MEL JM AM RFM CLN SP LAR BR JCS BS HH KEC. Wrote the paper: MCR.