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Research Article

Differential Effects of Early- and Late-Life Access to Carotenoids on Adult Immune Function and Ornamentation in Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

  • Michael W. Butler mail,

    Mike.Butler@asu.edu

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Kevin J. McGraw

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Published: May 30, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038043

About the Authors

Michael W. Butler, Kevin J. McGraw
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Mike.Butler@asu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MWB KJM. Performed the experiments: MWB. Analyzed the data: MWB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MWB KJM. Wrote the paper: MWB KJM.