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Research Article

New Species in the Old World: Europe as a Frontier in Biodiversity Exploration, a Test Bed for 21st Century Taxonomy

  • Benoît Fontaine mail,

    fontaine@mnhn.fr

    Affiliation: UMR 7204, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Kees van Achterberg,

    Affiliation: NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Miguel Angel Alonso-Zarazaga,

    Affiliation: Depto. de Biodiversidad y Biologıa Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain

    X
  • Rafael Araujo,

    Affiliation: Depto. de Biodiversidad y Biologıa Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain

    X
  • Manfred Asche,

    Affiliation: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    X
  • Horst Aspöck,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Parasitology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    X
  • Ulrike Aspöck,

    Affiliation: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Universität Wien, Wien, Austria

    X
  • Paolo Audisio,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology and Biotechnology “C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

    X
  • Berend Aukema,

    Affiliation: Renkum, The Netherlands

    X
  • Nicolas Bailly,

    Affiliation: WorldFish Center, Natural Resource Management, Laguna, Philippines

    X
  • Maria Balsamo,

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Uomo, dell’Ambiente e della Natura, Università di Urbino ‘Carlo Bo’, Urbino, Italy

    X
  • Ruud A. Bank,

    Affiliation: Hoogezand, Netherlands

    X
  • Carlo Belfiore,

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy

    X
  • Wieslaw Bogdanowicz,

    Affiliation: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland

    X
  • Geoffrey Boxshall,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Daniel Burckhardt,

    Affiliation: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

    X
  • Przemysław Chylarecki,

    Affiliation: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland

    X
  • Louis Deharveng,

    Affiliation: Dépt Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Alain Dubois,

    Affiliation: Dépt Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Henrik Enghoff,

    Affiliation: Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    X
  • Romolo Fochetti,

    Affiliation: Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Viterbo, Italy

    X
  • Colin Fontaine,

    Affiliation: UMR 7204, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Olivier Gargominy,

    Affiliation: Service du Patrimoine Naturel, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Maria Soledad Gomez Lopez,

    Affiliation: Laboratori de Parasitologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    X
  • Daniel Goujet,

    Affiliation: Dept. Histoire de la Terre, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Mark S. Harvey,

    Affiliation: Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, Western Australia, Australia

    X
  • Klaus-Gerhard Heller,

    Affiliation: Institut für Zoologie, University of Erlangen-Nürenberg, Erlangen, Germany

    X
  • Peter van Helsdingen,

    Affiliation: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, European Invertebrate Survey, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Hannelore Hoch,

    Affiliation: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    X
  • Yde De Jong,

    Affiliation: Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Ole Karsholt,

    Affiliation: Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    X
  • Wouter Los,

    Affiliation: Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Wojciech Magowski,

    Affiliation: Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

    X
  • Jos A. Massard,

    Affiliation: Echternach, Luxembourg

    X
  • Sandra J. McInnes,

    Affiliation: . British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Luis F. Mendes,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Centro de Zoologia, Lisboa, Portugal

    X
  • Eberhard Mey,

    Affiliation: Naturhistorisches Museum im Thüringer Landesmuseum, Rudolstadt, Germany

    X
  • Verner Michelsen,

    Affiliation: Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    X
  • Alessandro Minelli,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

    X
  • Juan M. Nieto Nafrıa,

    Affiliation: Departamento de Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, Universidad de Leon, Leon, Spain

    X
  • Erik J. van Nieukerken,

    Affiliation: NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Thomas Pape,

    Affiliation: Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    X
  • Willy De Prins,

    Affiliation: Flemish Entomological Society, Leefdaal, Belgium

    X
  • Marian Ramos,

    Affiliation: Depto. de Biodiversidad y Biologıa Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain

    X
  • Claudia Ricci,

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di protezione dei sistemi agroalimentare e urbano e valorizzazione delle biodiversità, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy

    X
  • Cees Roselaar,

    Affiliation: NCB Naturalis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Emilia Rota,

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Sezione di Sistematica ed Ecologia animale e vegetale, Universita di Siena, Siena, Italy

    X
  • Hendrik Segers,

    Affiliation: Freshwater Laboratory, Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium

    X
  • Tarmo Timm,

    Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartumaa, Estonia

    X
  • Jan van Tol,

    Affiliation: NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Philippe Bouchet

    Affiliation: Dépt Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

    X
  • Published: May 23, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036881

About the Authors

Benoît Fontaine, Colin Fontaine
UMR 7204, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Kees van Achterberg, Erik J. van Nieukerken, Jan van Tol
NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands
Miguel Angel Alonso-Zarazaga, Rafael Araujo, Marian Ramos
Depto. de Biodiversidad y Biologıa Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain
Manfred Asche, Hannelore Hoch
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Horst Aspöck
Department of Medical Parasitology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Ulrike Aspöck
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Universität Wien, Wien, Austria
Paolo Audisio
Department of Biology and Biotechnology “C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Berend Aukema
Renkum, The Netherlands
Nicolas Bailly
WorldFish Center, Natural Resource Management, Laguna, Philippines
Maria Balsamo
Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Uomo, dell’Ambiente e della Natura, Università di Urbino ‘Carlo Bo’, Urbino, Italy
Ruud A. Bank
Hoogezand, Netherlands
Carlo Belfiore
Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
Wieslaw Bogdanowicz, Przemysław Chylarecki
Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
Geoffrey Boxshall
Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Daniel Burckhardt
Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland
Louis Deharveng, Alain Dubois, Philippe Bouchet
Dépt Systématique et Evolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Henrik Enghoff, Ole Karsholt, Verner Michelsen, Thomas Pape
Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Romolo Fochetti
Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Viterbo, Italy
Olivier Gargominy
Service du Patrimoine Naturel, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Maria Soledad Gomez Lopez
Laboratori de Parasitologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Daniel Goujet
Dept. Histoire de la Terre, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
Mark S. Harvey
Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, Western Australia, Australia
Klaus-Gerhard Heller
Institut für Zoologie, University of Erlangen-Nürenberg, Erlangen, Germany
Peter van Helsdingen
Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, European Invertebrate Survey, Leiden, The Netherlands
Yde De Jong, Wouter Los
Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Wojciech Magowski
Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland
Jos A. Massard
Echternach, Luxembourg
Sandra J. McInnes
. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Luis F. Mendes
Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Centro de Zoologia, Lisboa, Portugal
Eberhard Mey
Naturhistorisches Museum im Thüringer Landesmuseum, Rudolstadt, Germany
Alessandro Minelli
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Juan M. Nieto Nafrıa
Departamento de Biodiversidad y Gestión Ambiental, Universidad de Leon, Leon, Spain
Willy De Prins
Flemish Entomological Society, Leefdaal, Belgium
Claudia Ricci
Dipartimento di protezione dei sistemi agroalimentare e urbano e valorizzazione delle biodiversità, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
Cees Roselaar
NCB Naturalis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Emilia Rota
Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Sezione di Sistematica ed Ecologia animale e vegetale, Universita di Siena, Siena, Italy
Hendrik Segers
Freshwater Laboratory, Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium
Tarmo Timm
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartumaa, Estonia

Corresponding Author

Email: fontaine@mnhn.fr

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BF PB. Performed the experiments: BF. Analyzed the data: BF CF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KVA MAAZ RA MA HA UA PA BA NB MB RB CB WB GB DB PC LD AD HE RF MSGL DG MH KGH PVH HH YDJ OK WL WM JM SMI LM EM VM AM JNN EVN TP WDP MR C. Ricci C. Roselaar ER HS TT JVT. Wrote the paper: BF. Designed database used in analyses: OG.