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Research Article

The Origin of the ‘Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster’ Coincides with Domestication of Ruminants

  • Anne Fischer,

    Affiliations: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya, Biotechnology Department, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Beth Shapiro,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Cecilia Muriuki,

    Affiliation: Biotechnology Department, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Martin Heller,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Jena, Germany

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  • Christiane Schnee,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Jena, Germany

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  • Erik Bongcam-Rudloff,

    Affiliation: Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Edy M. Vilei,

    Affiliation: Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Joachim Frey,

    Affiliation: Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Joerg Jores mail

    jores@web.de

    Affiliation: Biotechnology Department, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Published: April 27, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036150

About the Authors

Anne Fischer
Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya
Anne Fischer, Cecilia Muriuki, Joerg Jores
Biotechnology Department, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Beth Shapiro
Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Martin Heller, Christiane Schnee
Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Jena, Germany
Erik Bongcam-Rudloff
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Edy M. Vilei, Joachim Frey
Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Corresponding Author

Email: jores@web.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JJ JF. Performed the experiments: JJ CM CS. Analyzed the data: AF BS JJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JF MH EB-R EV. Wrote the paper: AF BS JJ.