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Research Article

Selenium Toxicity to Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Pollinators: Effects on Behaviors and Survival

  • Kristen R. Hladun mail,

    kristen.hladun@email.ucr.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America

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  • Brian H. Smith,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Julie A. Mustard,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Ray R. Morton,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America

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  • John T. Trumble

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America

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  • Published: April 13, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034137

About the Authors

Kristen R. Hladun, Ray R. Morton, John T. Trumble
Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America
Brian H. Smith, Julie A. Mustard
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: kristen.hladun@email.ucr.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KRH BHS JAM. Performed the experiments: KRH RRM. Analyzed the data: KRH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BHS JTT. Wrote the paper: KRH.