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Research Article

The Structure of Mediterranean Rocky Reef Ecosystems across Environmental and Human Gradients, and Conservation Implications

  • Enric Sala mail,

    esala@ngs.org

    Affiliations: National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain

    X
  • Enric Ballesteros,

    Affiliation: Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain

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  • Panagiotis Dendrinos,

    Affiliation: MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal, Athens, Greece

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  • Antonio Di Franco,

    Affiliation: DiSTeBA, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy

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  • Francesco Ferretti,

    Affiliation: Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America

    X
  • David Foley,

    Affiliations: NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Simonetta Fraschetti,

    Affiliation: DiSTeBA, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy

    X
  • Alan Friedlander,

    Affiliation: U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaii Cooperative Fishery Research Unit and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Joaquim Garrabou,

    Affiliation: Centre Mediterrani d'Investigacions Marines i Ambientals, ICM-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Harun Güçlüsoy,

    Affiliations: Dokuz Eylül University – Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey, SAD-EKOG, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey

    X
  • Paolo Guidetti,

    Affiliation: DiSTeBA, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy

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  • Benjamin S. Halpern,

    Affiliation: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

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  • Bernat Hereu,

    Affiliation: Departament d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Alexandros A. Karamanlidis,

    Affiliation: MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal, Athens, Greece

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  • Zafer Kizilkaya,

    Affiliation: SAD-EKOG, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey

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  • Enrique Macpherson,

    Affiliation: Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain

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  • Luisa Mangialajo,

    Affiliation: Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France

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  • Simone Mariani,

    Affiliation: Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain

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  • Fiorenza Micheli,

    Affiliation: Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America

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  • Antonio Pais,

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di Scienze Zootecniche, Università di Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Kristin Riser,

    Affiliation: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Andrew A. Rosenberg,

    Affiliation: Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Marta Sales,

    Affiliation: Estació d'Investigació Jaume Ferrer, IEO-Centre Oceanogràfic de Balears, Maó, Spain

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  • Kimberly A. Selkoe,

    Affiliation: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

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  • Rick Starr,

    Affiliations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, California, United States of America

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  • Fiona Tomas,

    Affiliation: Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain

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  • Mikel Zabala

    Affiliation: Departament d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Published: February 29, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032742

About the Authors

Enric Sala
National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Enric Sala, Enric Ballesteros, Enrique Macpherson, Simone Mariani, Fiona Tomas
Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, CEAB-CSIC, Blanes, Spain
Panagiotis Dendrinos, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis
MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal, Athens, Greece
Antonio Di Franco, Simonetta Fraschetti, Paolo Guidetti
DiSTeBA, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy
Francesco Ferretti, Fiorenza Micheli
Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America
David Foley
NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America
David Foley
Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Alan Friedlander
U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaii Cooperative Fishery Research Unit and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Joaquim Garrabou
Centre Mediterrani d'Investigacions Marines i Ambientals, ICM-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
Harun Güçlüsoy
Dokuz Eylül University – Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey
Harun Güçlüsoy, Zafer Kizilkaya
SAD-EKOG, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
Benjamin S. Halpern, Kimberly A. Selkoe
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America
Bernat Hereu, Mikel Zabala
Departament d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Luisa Mangialajo
Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France
Antonio Pais
Dipartimento di Scienze Zootecniche, Università di Sassari, Sassari, Italy
Kristin Riser, Rick Starr
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Andrew A. Rosenberg
Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
Marta Sales
Estació d'Investigació Jaume Ferrer, IEO-Centre Oceanogràfic de Balears, Maó, Spain
Rick Starr
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: esala@ngs.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ES EB SF PG LM FM AR MZ. Performed the experiments: ES EB PD AD FF SF JG HG PG BSH BH AK ZK EM LM SM FM AP KR MS KS RS FT MZ. Analyzed the data: ES EB AD FF DF SF AF PG BSH FM. Wrote the paper: ES EB FF SF PG BSH FM AR.