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Research Article

Global Monthly Water Scarcity: Blue Water Footprints versus Blue Water Availability

  • Arjen Y. Hoekstra mail,

    a.y.hoekstra@utwente.nl

    Affiliations: Department of Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, Water Footprint Network, Enschede, The Netherlands

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  • Mesfin M. Mekonnen,

    Affiliation: Department of Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

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  • Ashok K. Chapagain,

    Affiliation: World Wide Fund-United Kingdom, Godalming, Surrey, United Kingdom

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  • Ruth E. Mathews,

    Affiliation: Water Footprint Network, Enschede, The Netherlands

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  • Brian D. Richter

    Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Published: February 29, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032688

About the Authors

Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Mesfin M. Mekonnen
Department of Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Ruth E. Mathews
Water Footprint Network, Enschede, The Netherlands
Ashok K. Chapagain
World Wide Fund-United Kingdom, Godalming, Surrey, United Kingdom
Brian D. Richter
The Nature Conservancy, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: a.y.hoekstra@utwente.nl

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AYH MMM. Performed the experiments: AYH MMM. Analyzed the data: AYH MMM. Wrote the paper: AYH MMM AKC REM BDR.