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Research Article

Eco-Virological Approach for Assessing the Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Avian Influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway

  • Scott H. Newman,

    Affiliation: EMPRES Wildlife Unit, Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases, Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

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  • Nichola J. Hill,

    Affiliations: United States Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, Vallejo, California, United States of America, Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Kyle A. Spragens,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, Vallejo, California, United States of America

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  • Daniel Janies,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Igor O. Voronkin,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Diann J. Prosser,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Baoping Yan,

    Affiliation: Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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  • Fumin Lei,

    Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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  • Nyambayar Batbayar,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Science and Conservation Center, Bayanzurkh District Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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  • Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj,

    Affiliation: Ornithological Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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  • Charles M. Bishop,

    Affiliation: Bangor University, School of Biological Sciences, Brambell Laboratories, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom

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  • Patrick J. Butler,

    Affiliation: School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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  • Martin Wikelski,

    Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany

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  • Sivananinthaperumal Balachandran,

    Affiliation: Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, India

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  • Taej Mundkur,

    Affiliation: Wetlands International, 471, 6700 AL, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • David C. Douglas,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America

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  • John Y. Takekawa mail

    john_takekawa@usgs.gov

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, Vallejo, California, United States of America

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  • Published: February 07, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030636

About the Authors

Scott H. Newman
EMPRES Wildlife Unit, Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases, Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
Nichola J. Hill, Kyle A. Spragens, John Y. Takekawa
United States Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Station, Vallejo, California, United States of America
Nichola J. Hill
Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America
Daniel Janies, Igor O. Voronkin
Department of Biomedical Informatics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America
Diann J. Prosser
United States Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America
Baoping Yan
Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Fumin Lei
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Nyambayar Batbayar
Wildlife Science and Conservation Center, Bayanzurkh District Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj
Ornithological Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Charles M. Bishop
Bangor University, School of Biological Sciences, Brambell Laboratories, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom
Patrick J. Butler
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Martin Wikelski
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany
Sivananinthaperumal Balachandran
Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, India
Taej Mundkur
Wetlands International, 471, 6700 AL, Wageningen, The Netherlands
David C. Douglas
United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: john_takekawa@usgs.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SHN JYT NJH. Performed the experiments: SHN JYT NJH KAS DJP BPY FML NB TN CMB PJB MW SB TM. Analyzed the data: NJH KAS DJ IOV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JYT DJ DCD. Wrote the paper: SHN NJH JYT.