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Research Article

The Braincase of the Basal Sauropod Dinosaur Spinophorosaurus and 3D Reconstructions of the Cranial Endocast and Inner Ear

  • Fabien Knoll mail,

    knoll@mncn.csic.es

    Affiliation: Departamento de Paleobiología, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

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  • Lawrence M. Witmer,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Francisco Ortega,

    Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain

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  • Ryan C. Ridgely,

    Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Daniela Schwarz-Wings

    Affiliation: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

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  • Published: January 17, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030060
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Fabien Knoll
Departamento de Paleobiología, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America
Francisco Ortega
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain
Daniela Schwarz-Wings
Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: knoll@mncn.csic.es

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FK LMW FO DSW. Performed the experiments: FK LMW RCR. Analyzed the data: FK LMW RCR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FO LMW RCR. Wrote the paper: FK LMW DSW.