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Research Article

Caribbean Creep’ Chills Out: Climate Change and Marine Invasive Species

  • João Canning-Clode mail,

    canning-clodej@si.edu

    Affiliations: Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America, IMAR / Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Horta, Portugal, Center of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

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  • Amy E. Fowler,

    Affiliation: Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America

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  • James E. Byers,

    Affiliation: The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

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  • James T. Carlton,

    Affiliation: Williams College – Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Gregory M. Ruiz

    Affiliation: Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: December 28, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029657

About the Authors

João Canning-Clode, Amy E. Fowler, Gregory M. Ruiz
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, United States of America
João Canning-Clode
IMAR / Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Horta, Portugal
João Canning-Clode
Center of Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
James E. Byers
The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
James T. Carlton
Williams College – Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: canning-clodej@si.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JCC. Performed the experiments: JCC AEF. Analyzed the data: JCC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JCC AEF JEB JTC GMR. Wrote the paper: JCC AEF JEB JTC GMR.