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Research Article

A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

  • Andrew Core,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Charles Runckel,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Jonathan Ivers,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Christopher Quock,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Travis Siapno,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Seraphina DeNault,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Brian Brown,

    Affiliation: Entomology Section, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Joseph DeRisi,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Christopher D. Smith,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • John Hafernik mail

    acore13@yahoo.com

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: January 03, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029639

About the Authors

Andrew Core, Jonathan Ivers, Christopher Quock, Travis Siapno, Seraphina DeNault, Christopher D. Smith, John Hafernik
Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Charles Runckel, Joseph DeRisi
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Brian Brown
Entomology Section, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: acore13@yahoo.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JH AC JI CQ SD CR JD CS. Performed the experiments: JH AC JI CQ SD CR TS. Analyzed the data: JH AC CS CR JD TS BB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JD CR. Wrote the paper: JH AC CS CR BB. Discovered phorid/bee phenomenon: JH. Photographed phorids and bees: CQ JH.