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Research Article

Subjecting Elite Athletes to Inspiratory Breathing Load Reveals Behavioral and Neural Signatures of Optimal Performers in Extreme Environments

  • Martin P. Paulus mail,

    mpaulus@ucsd.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America, Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Taru Flagan,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Alan N. Simmons,

    Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Kristine Gillis,

    Affiliation: OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Sante Kotturi,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Nathaniel Thom,

    Affiliation: OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Douglas C. Johnson,

    Affiliation: OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Karl F. Van Orden,

    Affiliation: OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Paul W. Davenport,

    Affiliation: Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Judith L. Swain

    Affiliations: OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences-A*STAR and National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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  • Published: January 19, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029394

About the Authors

Martin P. Paulus, Taru Flagan, Alan N. Simmons, Sante Kotturi
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Martin P. Paulus, Kristine Gillis, Nathaniel Thom, Douglas C. Johnson, Karl F. Van Orden, Judith L. Swain
OptiBrain Consortium, San Diego, California, United States of America
Martin P. Paulus, Alan N. Simmons
Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
Paul W. Davenport
Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
Judith L. Swain
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences-A*STAR and National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Corresponding Author

Email: mpaulus@ucsd.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MPP ANS KFVO PWD JLS. Performed the experiments: MPP TF KG ANS SK NT DCJ. Analyzed the data: MPP TF ANS SK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MPP TF ANS. Wrote the paper: MPP ANS TF SK NT DCJ KFVO PWD JLS.