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Research Article

Population-Based Incidence of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Informal Settlement and a Rural Area in Kenya: Implications for Typhoid Vaccine Use in Africa

  • Robert F. Breiman mail,

    rbreiman@ke.cdc.gov

    Affiliation: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Leonard Cosmas,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Henry Njuguna,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Allan Audi,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Beatrice Olack,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • John B. Ochieng,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Newton Wamola,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Godfrey M. Bigogo,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • George Awiti,

    Affiliations: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Collins W. Tabu,

    Affiliation: Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya

    X
  • Heather Burke,

    Affiliation: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • John Williamson,

    Affiliation: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Joseph O. Oundo,

    Affiliation: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Eric D. Mintz,

    Affiliation: National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • Daniel R. Feikin

    Affiliation: Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya

    X
  • Published: January 19, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029119

About the Authors

Robert F. Breiman, Leonard Cosmas, Henry Njuguna, Allan Audi, Beatrice Olack, John B. Ochieng, Newton Wamola, Godfrey M. Bigogo, George Awiti, Heather Burke, John Williamson, Joseph O. Oundo, Daniel R. Feikin
Global Disease Detection Division, Kenya Office of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
Leonard Cosmas, Henry Njuguna, Allan Audi, Beatrice Olack, John B. Ochieng, Newton Wamola, Godfrey M. Bigogo, George Awiti
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
Collins W. Tabu
Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya
Eric D. Mintz
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rbreiman@ke.cdc.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RFB HB DRF. Performed the experiments: RFB HB DRF HN JBO NW GA. Analyzed the data: RFB LC AA GMB BO JW EDM DRF HB HN JBO CWT JOO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JW AA LC. Wrote the paper: RFB.