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Research Article

Managed Metapopulations: Do Salmon Hatchery ‘Sources’ Lead to In-River ‘Sinks’ in Conservation?

  • Rachel C. Johnson mail,

    rbarnettjohnson@usbr.gov

    Affiliation: Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    Current address: Bay Delta Office, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Sacramento, California, United States of America

    Previously published as Rachel Barnett-Johnson.

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  • Peter K. Weber,

    Affiliation: Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America

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  • John D. Wikert,

    Affiliation: Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Stockton, California, United States of America

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  • Michelle L. Workman,

    Affiliation: East Bay Municipal Utility District, Lodi, California, United States of America

    Current address: Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stockton, California, United States of America

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  • R. Bruce MacFarlane,

    Affiliation: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Marty J. Grove,

    Affiliation: Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Axel K. Schmitt

    Affiliation: Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Published: February 08, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028880

About the Authors

Rachel C. Johnson
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Peter K. Weber
Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America
John D. Wikert
Anadromous Fish Restoration Program, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Stockton, California, United States of America
Michelle L. Workman
East Bay Municipal Utility District, Lodi, California, United States of America
R. Bruce MacFarlane
Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Marty J. Grove, Axel K. Schmitt
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rbarnettjohnson@usbr.gov

Competing Interests

MW was employeed by East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) during the project period and coordinated sample collection as part of EBMUD's salmon monitoring program. Sampling design was conceived by grantees. This collaboration does not alter the authors′ adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RCJ PW JW MW. Analyzed the data: RCJ PW AS. Wrote the paper: RCJ PW. Performed chemical analyses: RCJ PW MG AS. Contributed analysis tool: RBM. Project management: RBM.