Advertisement
Research Article

Streptococcus pneumoniae in Biofilms Are Unable to Cause Invasive Disease Due to Altered Virulence Determinant Production

  • Carlos J. Sanchez,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Nikhil Kumar,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Anel Lizcano,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Pooja Shivshankar,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Julie C. Dunning Hotopp,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • James H. Jorgensen,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America, Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Hervé Tettelin,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Carlos J. Orihuela mail

    orihuela@uthscsa.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Published: December 08, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028738

About the Authors

Carlos J. Sanchez, Anel Lizcano, Pooja Shivshankar, James H. Jorgensen, Carlos J. Orihuela
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
Nikhil Kumar, Julie C. Dunning Hotopp, Hervé Tettelin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
James H. Jorgensen
Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: orihuela@uthscsa.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CJS JHJ HT CJO. Performed the experiments: CJS NK AL PS JCDH. Analyzed the data: CJS NK HT CJO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JHJ HT CJO. Wrote the paper: CJS HT CJO.