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Research Article

Temporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema, and Crithidia

  • Charles Runckel equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Charles Runckel, Michelle L. Flenniken

    Affiliations: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United State of America, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Microbiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Michelle L. Flenniken equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Charles Runckel, Michelle L. Flenniken

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Juan C. Engel,

    Affiliation: Sandler Center for Drug Discovery and Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • J. Graham Ruby,

    Affiliations: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United State of America, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Microbiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Donald Ganem,

    Affiliations: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United State of America, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Microbiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Raul Andino,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Joseph L. DeRisi mail

    joe@derisilab.ucsf.edu

    Affiliations: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United State of America, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Microbiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Published: June 07, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020656

About the Authors

Charles Runckel, J. Graham Ruby, Donald Ganem, Joseph L. DeRisi
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United State of America
Charles Runckel, J. Graham Ruby, Donald Ganem, Joseph L. DeRisi
Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Microbiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Michelle L. Flenniken, Raul Andino
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Juan C. Engel
Sandler Center for Drug Discovery and Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: joe@derisilab.ucsf.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JLDR MLF CR. Performed the experiments: CR MLF JCE. Analyzed the data: CR MLF JGR JLDR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JGR DG RA JLDR. Wrote the paper: MLF CR RA DG JLDR.