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Research Article

Early Mortality and AIDS Progression Despite High Initial Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Virologic Suppression in Botswana

  • Katherine T. Steele,

    Affiliations: University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

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  • Andrew P. Steenhoff,

    Affiliations: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Craig W. Newcomb,

    Affiliation: Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Tumelo Rantleru,

    Affiliation: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

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  • Rudo Nthobatsang,

    Affiliation: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

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  • Gloria Lesetedi,

    Affiliation: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

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  • Scarlett L. Bellamy,

    Affiliation: Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jean B. Nachega,

    Affiliation: Departments of International Health and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Robert Gross,

    Affiliations: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Gregory P. Bisson mail

    bisson@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: June 15, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020010

About the Authors

Katherine T. Steele
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Katherine T. Steele, Andrew P. Steenhoff, Tumelo Rantleru, Rudo Nthobatsang, Gloria Lesetedi, Robert Gross, Gregory P. Bisson
Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana
Andrew P. Steenhoff
Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Andrew P. Steenhoff
Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Craig W. Newcomb, Scarlett L. Bellamy, Robert Gross, Gregory P. Bisson
Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jean B. Nachega
Departments of International Health and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Robert Gross, Gregory P. Bisson
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: bisson@mail.med.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

All authors declare: (1) No financial support for the submitted work from anyone other than their employer; (2) RG has contracts with Abbott Laboratories and Bristol-Myers Squibb for HIV-related research, but these relationships are unrelated to the submitted work. All other authors report no financial relationships with commercial entities that might have an interest in the submitted work; (3) No spouses, partners, or children have financial relationships that may be relevant to the submitted work; and (4) No non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GPB KS RG APS. Performed the experiments: RN GL TR KS APS. Analyzed the data: CWN SLB JNB GB KTS. Wrote the paper: GPB KTS.