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Research Article

Trouble with Bleeding: Risk Factors for Acute Hepatitis C among HIV-Positive Gay Men from Germany—A Case-Control Study

  • Axel J. Schmidt mail,

    a.j.schmidt@rki.de

    Affiliation: Department for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany

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  • Jürgen K. Rockstroh,

    Affiliation: Medical Clinic I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Martin Vogel,

    Affiliation: Medical Clinic I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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  • Matthias An der Heiden,

    Affiliation: Department for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany

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  • Armin Baillot,

    Affiliation: Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony, Hannover, Germany

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  • Ivanka Krznaric,

    Affiliation: Medical Practice, Driesener Strasse, Berlin, Germany

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  • Doris Radun

    Affiliation: Department for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany

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  • Published: March 08, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017781

About the Authors

Axel J. Schmidt, Matthias An der Heiden, Doris Radun
Department for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
Jürgen K. Rockstroh, Martin Vogel
Medical Clinic I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Armin Baillot
Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony, Hannover, Germany
Ivanka Krznaric
Medical Practice, Driesener Strasse, Berlin, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: a.j.schmidt@rki.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist, neither financial nor non-financial. Neither the German MOH, nor any pharmaceutical company had a role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The lecture fees and congress travel grants as disclosed by M.V. and J.K.R. have no connection to this case-control-study on sexual, nosocomial, and other non-sexual determinants. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: AJS. Wrote the paper: AJS. Study design: AJS DR MV IK. Questionnaire: AJS DR. Clinical supervision: JKR. Recruitment of participants: MV IK. Statistical supervision: MadH DR. Antibody testing from DBS: AB.