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Research Article

Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

  • Michael J. Twiner mail,

    mtwiner@umd.umich.edu

    Affiliations: Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan

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  • Spencer Fire,

    Affiliation: Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Lori Schwacke,

    Affiliation: Center for Human Health Risks at Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Leigh Davidson,

    Affiliation: Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Zhihong Wang,

    Affiliation: Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Steve Morton,

    Affiliation: Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Stephen Roth,

    Affiliation: Coastal Ecology Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America

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  • Brian Balmer,

    Affiliation: Chicago Zoological Society, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, United States of America

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  • Teresa K. Rowles,

    Affiliation: Office of Protected Resources, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Randall S. Wells

    Affiliation: Chicago Zoological Society, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, United States of America

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  • Published: March 10, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017394

About the Authors

Michael J. Twiner, Spencer Fire, Leigh Davidson, Zhihong Wang, Steve Morton
Marine Biotoxins Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
Michael J. Twiner
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, United States of America
Lori Schwacke
Center for Human Health Risks at Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
Stephen Roth
Coastal Ecology Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
Brian Balmer, Randall S. Wells
Chicago Zoological Society, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, United States of America
Teresa K. Rowles
Office of Protected Resources, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mtwiner@umd.umich.edu

Competing Interests

Funding was received from Disney's Animal Programs to help conduct this study; however, there are no restrictions on sharing of data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MJT SF LS TKR RSW. Performed the experiments: MJT SF LS LD ZW SM BB TKR RSW. Analyzed the data: MJT SF LS ZW SR TKR RSW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MJT SF LS LD SR BB TKR RSW. Wrote the paper: MJT SF LS RSW.