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Research Article

Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

  • Peter L. Tyack mail,

    ptyack@whoi.edu

    Affiliation: Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Walter M. X. Zimmer,

    Affiliation: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy

    X
  • David Moretti,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Brandon L. Southall,

    Affiliations: Southall Environmental Associates, Aptos, California, United States of America, Long Marine Laboratory, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Diane E. Claridge,

    Affiliation: Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation, Marsh Harbour, Abaco, Bahamas

    X
  • John W. Durban,

    Affiliation: Protected Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Christopher W. Clark,

    Affiliation: Bioacoustics Research Program, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Angela D'Amico,

    Affiliation: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, California, United States of America

    X
  • Nancy DiMarzio,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Susan Jarvis,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Elena McCarthy,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Ronald Morrissey,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Jessica Ward,

    Affiliation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Ian L. Boyd

    Affiliation: Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: March 14, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017009

About the Authors

Peter L. Tyack
Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America
Walter M. X. Zimmer
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy
David Moretti, Nancy DiMarzio, Susan Jarvis, Elena McCarthy, Ronald Morrissey, Jessica Ward
Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, Rhode Island, United States of America
Brandon L. Southall
Southall Environmental Associates, Aptos, California, United States of America
Brandon L. Southall
Long Marine Laboratory, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Diane E. Claridge
Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation, Marsh Harbour, Abaco, Bahamas
John W. Durban
Protected Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Christopher W. Clark
Bioacoustics Research Program, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Angela D'Amico
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, California, United States of America
Ian L. Boyd
Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: ptyack@whoi.edu

Competing Interests

While the sponsors of this study come from an international mix of sound producers and a United States regulatory agency, the majority of funding for the research reported here comes from different divisions of the U.S. Navy, and all of the authors have had at least some of the research reported here partially funded by different divisions of the U.S. Navy. The following authors are employed by the U.S. Navy: David Moretti, Angela D'Amico, Nancy DiMarzio, Susan Jarvis, Elena McCarthy, Ronald Morrissey, and Jessica Ward. Their primary involvement was in designing, installing, and helping to operate the passive acoustic marine mammal monitoring system at the AUTEC range; providing the sound sources used in the experiments; and with analyzing and writing up the data. During the time period covered by this research the following authors were employed by the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which acts as the federal regulatory agency for protection of marine mammals: Brandon Southall and John Durban. The following authors have been asked by the U.S. Department of Justice to act as expert witnesses in cases involving the effects of naval sonar on marine mammals: Christopher Clark, Brandon Southall, and Peter Tyack. Peter Tyack is a member of Natural Resources Defense Council, which is an advocacy organization that has sued the Navy concerning effects of sonar on marine mammals. None of the analysis nor write up of the paper involved or was influenced by the sponsors of the research.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PLT WMXZ DM BLS DEC JWD CWC IB. Performed the experiments: PLT WMXZ DM BLS DEC JWD CWC AD ND SJ EM RM JW IB. Analyzed the data: PLT WMXZ DM BLS DEC JWD CWC AD ND SJ EM RM JW IB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PLT WMXZ DM BLS DEC JWD CWC AD ND SJ EM RM JW IB. Wrote the manuscript: PLT WMXZ DM BLS JWD IB.