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Research Article

Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

  • Rowena F. Stern mail,

    rstern71@yahoo.com

    Affiliation: The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Ales Horak,

    Affiliation: The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Rose L. Andrew,

    Affiliation: The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Mary-Alice Coffroth,

    Affiliation: Department of Geology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

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  • Robert A. Andersen,

    Affiliation: Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine, United States of America

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  • Frithjof C. Küpper,

    Affiliation: Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, United Kingdom

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  • Ian Jameson,

    Affiliation: Australian National Algae Culture Collection, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Australia

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  • Mona Hoppenrath,

    Affiliation: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Deutsches Zentrum für Marine Biodiversitätsforschung (DZMB), Wilhelmshaven, Germany

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  • Benoît Véron,

    Affiliations: Algobank-Caen, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Caen, France, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

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  • Fumai Kasai,

    Affiliation: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

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  • Jerry Brand,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America

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  • Erick R. James,

    Affiliation: The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Patrick J. Keeling

    Affiliation: The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Published: November 15, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013991

About the Authors

Rowena F. Stern, Ales Horak, Rose L. Andrew, Erick R. James, Patrick J. Keeling
The Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Mary-Alice Coffroth
Department of Geology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America
Robert A. Andersen
Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine, United States of America
Frithjof C. Küpper
Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, United Kingdom
Ian Jameson
Australian National Algae Culture Collection, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Australia
Mona Hoppenrath
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Deutsches Zentrum für Marine Biodiversitätsforschung (DZMB), Wilhelmshaven, Germany
Benoît Véron
Algobank-Caen, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Caen, France
Benoît Véron, Fumai Kasai
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
Jerry Brand
School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rstern71@yahoo.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RFS PJK. Performed the experiments: RFS MAC ERJ. Analyzed the data: RFS AH RA MAC FCK IJ MH ERJ PJK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AH RA MAC RAA FCK IJ MH BV FK JB PJK. Wrote the paper: RFS PJK. Contributed to manuscript preparation: AH RA MAC FCK RAA IJ MH BV FK JB. Established cultures: MAC MH. Contributed to collective acquisition of cultures: RAA. Contributed to interpretation of results: RAA IJ MH. Contributed to preparation of materials: IJ.