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Research Article

Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters

  • Melissa A. Miller mail,

    mmiller@ospr.dfg.ca.gov

    Affiliations: Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America, Ocean Sciences Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Raphael M. Kudela,

    Affiliation: Ocean Sciences Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Abdu Mekebri,

    Affiliation: Water Pollution Control Laboratory, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Rancho Cordova, California, United States of America

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  • Dave Crane,

    Affiliation: Water Pollution Control Laboratory, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Rancho Cordova, California, United States of America

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  • Stori C. Oates,

    Affiliation: Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • M. Timothy Tinker,

    Affiliation: Western Ecological Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Michelle Staedler,

    Affiliation: Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, United States of America

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  • Woutrina A. Miller,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Sharon Toy-Choutka,

    Affiliation: Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Clare Dominik,

    Affiliation: Applied Marine Sciences, Livermore, California, United States of America

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  • Dane Hardin,

    Affiliation: Applied Marine Sciences, Livermore, California, United States of America

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  • Gregg Langlois,

    Affiliation: California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America

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  • Michael Murray,

    Affiliation: Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, United States of America

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  • Kim Ward,

    Affiliation: Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, California, United States of America

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  • David A. Jessup

    Affiliation: Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Published: September 10, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012576

About the Authors

Melissa A. Miller, Stori C. Oates, Sharon Toy-Choutka, David A. Jessup
Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Melissa A. Miller, Raphael M. Kudela
Ocean Sciences Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Abdu Mekebri, Dave Crane
Water Pollution Control Laboratory, California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Rancho Cordova, California, United States of America
M. Timothy Tinker
Western Ecological Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Michelle Staedler, Michael Murray
Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, United States of America
Woutrina A. Miller
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
Clare Dominik, Dane Hardin
Applied Marine Sciences, Livermore, California, United States of America
Gregg Langlois
California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America
Kim Ward
Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mmiller@ospr.dfg.ca.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MAM RMK SCO CD DH KW DAJ. Performed the experiments: MAM RMK AM DBC SCO MTT MS STC CD. Analyzed the data: MAM RMK AM DBC SCO MTT STC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MAM RMK AM DBC MTT MS WM DH GL MM KW DAJ. Wrote the paper: MAM RMK AM DBC SCO MTT MS WM STC CD DH GL MM KW DAJ.