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Research Article

A Conserved Behavioral State Barrier Impedes Transitions between Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness and Wakefulness: Evidence for Neural Inertia

  • Eliot B. Friedman,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Yi Sun,

    Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jason T. Moore,

    Affiliations: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Hsiao-Tung Hung,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Qing Cheng Meng,

    Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Priyan Perera,

    Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • William J. Joiner,

    Affiliation: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Steven A. Thomas,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Roderic G. Eckenhoff,

    Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Amita Sehgal,

    Affiliations: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Max B. Kelz mail

    kelzma@uphs.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: July 30, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011903

About the Authors

Eliot B. Friedman, Hsiao-Tung Hung
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Yi Sun, Jason T. Moore, Qing Cheng Meng, Priyan Perera, Roderic G. Eckenhoff, Max B. Kelz
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
William J. Joiner, Amita Sehgal
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Steven A. Thomas
Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jason T. Moore, Max B. Kelz
Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Eliot B. Friedman, Hsiao-Tung Hung, Amita Sehgal, Max B. Kelz
Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Eliot B. Friedman, Max B. Kelz
Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: kelzma@uphs.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EBF RGE MBK. Performed the experiments: EBF YS HTH QCM PP. Analyzed the data: EBF YS JTM QCM PP WJJ MBK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EBF JTM WJJ SAT AS MBK. Wrote the paper: EBF MBK. Edited manuscript: SAT RGE AS.