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Research Article

Tourniquet-Applied Upper Limb Orthopaedic Surgery Results in Increased Inflammation and Changes to Leukocyte, Coagulation and Endothelial Markers

  • Stephen F. Hughes mail,

    stephen.hughes@chester.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom, Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Medical School, Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Beverly D. Hendricks,

    Affiliation: Haematology Department, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Conwy, United Kingdom

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  • David R. Edwards,

    Affiliation: Haematology Department, Gwynedd Hospital, Gwynedd, United Kingdom

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  • Jim F. Middleton

    Affiliation: Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Medical School, Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Published: July 28, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011846

About the Authors

Stephen F. Hughes
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom
Beverly D. Hendricks
Haematology Department, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Conwy, United Kingdom
David R. Edwards
Haematology Department, Gwynedd Hospital, Gwynedd, United Kingdom
Stephen F. Hughes, Jim F. Middleton
Leopold Muller Arthritis Research Centre, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Medical School, Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: stephen.hughes@chester.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SFH DRE JFM. Performed the experiments: SFH BDH JFM. Analyzed the data: SFH DRE JFM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SFH BDH. Wrote the paper: SFH JFM. Provided clinical advice: DRE.