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Research Article

Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

  • Deborah J. Pain mail,

    debbie.pain@wwt.org.uk

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Ruth L. Cromie,

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Julia Newth,

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Martin J. Brown,

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Eric Crutcher,

    Affiliation: Residues Surveillance Unit, Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom

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  • Pippa Hardman,

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Louise Hurst,

    Affiliation: Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom

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  • Rafael Mateo,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain

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  • Andrew A. Meharg,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biological Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

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  • Annette C. Moran,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biological Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

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  • Andrea Raab,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biological Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom

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  • Mark A. Taggart,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain

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  • Rhys E. Green

    Affiliations: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: April 26, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010315

About the Authors

Deborah J. Pain, Ruth L. Cromie, Julia Newth, Martin J. Brown, Pippa Hardman, Louise Hurst
Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
Eric Crutcher
Residues Surveillance Unit, Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
Rafael Mateo, Mark A. Taggart
Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain
Andrew A. Meharg, Annette C. Moran, Andrea Raab
Institute of Biological Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Rhys E. Green
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
Rhys E. Green
Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: debbie.pain@wwt.org.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DJP RG. Analyzed the data: RG. Wrote the paper: DJP RG. Designed study: RC. Revised and approved the article: RC JN MB EC PH LH RM AM ACM AR MAT. Helped design methods: JN. Acquired and prepared samples: JN PH LH. Acquired samples: MB. Analysed samples: MB RM AM ACM AR MAT. Interpreted data: EC.