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Research Article

The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern

  • Beth A. Polidoro mail,

    bpolidor@odu.edu

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC/Conservation International Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Kent E. Carpenter,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC/Conservation International Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Lorna Collins,

    Affiliations: Center for Global Trends, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom

    X
  • Norman C. Duke,

    Affiliation: Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

    X
  • Aaron M. Ellison,

    Affiliation: Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Joanna C. Ellison,

    Affiliation: School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia

    X
  • Elizabeth J. Farnsworth,

    Affiliation: New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Edwino S. Fernando,

    Affiliation: Department of Forest Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, Philippines

    X
  • Kandasamy Kathiresan,

    Affiliation: Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, India

    X
  • Nico E. Koedam,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

    X
  • Suzanne R. Livingstone,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC/Conservation International Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Toyohiko Miyagi,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Liberal Art, Department of Regional Management, Tohoku-Gakuin University, Sendai, Japan

    X
  • Gregg E. Moore,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences and Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, United States of America

    X
  • Vien Ngoc Nam,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Forestry, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    X
  • Jin Eong Ong,

    Affiliation: Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

    X
  • Jurgenne H. Primavera,

    Affiliation: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines

    X
  • Severino G. Salmo III,

    Affiliations: Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia, College of Agriculture, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    X
  • Jonnell C. Sanciangco,

    Affiliation: IUCN Species Programme/SSC/Conservation International Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Sukristijono Sukardjo,

    Affiliation: Center for Oceanological Research and Development, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Yamin Wang,

    Affiliation: College of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai, China

    X
  • Jean Wan Hong Yong

    Affiliation: Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore

    X
  • Published: April 08, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010095

About the Authors

Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Jonnell C. Sanciangco
IUCN Species Programme/SSC/Conservation International Global Marine Species Assessment, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America
Lorna Collins
Center for Global Trends, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
Lorna Collins
School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom
Norman C. Duke, Severino G. Salmo III
Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia
Aaron M. Ellison
Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts, United States of America
Joanna C. Ellison
School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia
Elizabeth J. Farnsworth
New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America
Edwino S. Fernando
Department of Forest Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, Philippines
Kandasamy Kathiresan
Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, India
Nico E. Koedam
Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
Toyohiko Miyagi
Faculty of Liberal Art, Department of Regional Management, Tohoku-Gakuin University, Sendai, Japan
Gregg E. Moore
Department of Biological Sciences and Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, United States of America
Vien Ngoc Nam
Faculty of Forestry, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jin Eong Ong
Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Jurgenne H. Primavera
Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines
Severino G. Salmo III
College of Agriculture, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Sukristijono Sukardjo
Center for Oceanological Research and Development, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia
Yamin Wang
College of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai, China
Jean Wan Hong Yong
Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore

Corresponding Author

Email: bpolidor@odu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BP KEC SRL. Performed the experiments: BP KEC NCD AME JCE EF ESF KK NK SRL TM GEM VNN JEO JHP SGSI JS SS YW JWHY. Analyzed the data: BP LC JS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LC NCD AME JCE EF ESF KK NK TM GEM VNN JEO JHP SGSI SS YW JWHY. Wrote the paper: BP.