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Research Article

High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health

  • Christopher A. Mullin mail,

    camullin@psu.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Maryann Frazier,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • James L. Frazier,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Sara Ashcraft,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Roger Simonds,

    Affiliation: National Science Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Marketing Service, Gastonia, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Dennis vanEngelsdorp,

    Affiliation: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jeffery S. Pettis

    Affiliation: Bee Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Published: March 19, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009754

About the Authors

Christopher A. Mullin, Maryann Frazier, James L. Frazier, Sara Ashcraft
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Roger Simonds
National Science Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Marketing Service, Gastonia, North Carolina, United States of America
Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jeffery S. Pettis
Bee Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: camullin@psu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CAM MF JF Dv JSP. Performed the experiments: CAM MF SA RS. Analyzed the data: CAM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CAM SA RS Dv JSP. Wrote the paper: CAM MF JF.