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Research Article

Extreme Female Promiscuity in a Non-Social Invertebrate Species

  • Marina Panova mail,

    Marina.Panova@marecol.gu.se

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Johan Boström,

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Tobias Hofving,

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Therese Areskoug,

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Anders Eriksson,

    Affiliations: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden, Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden

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  • Bernhard Mehlig,

    Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden

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  • Tuuli Mäkinen,

    Affiliation: University of Alaska Museum of the North, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Carl André,

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Kerstin Johannesson

    Affiliation: Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden

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  • Published: March 11, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009640

About the Authors

Marina Panova, Johan Boström, Tobias Hofving, Therese Areskoug, Anders Eriksson, Carl André, Kerstin Johannesson
Department of Marine Ecology-Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden
Anders Eriksson, Bernhard Mehlig
Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
Tuuli Mäkinen
University of Alaska Museum of the North, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Marina.Panova@marecol.gu.se

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MP JB TH TM CA KJ. Performed the experiments: MP JB TH TA. Analyzed the data: MP JB TH AE BM CA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MP AE BM CA. Wrote the paper: MP TM CA KJ.