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Research Article

Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals

  • Carol Kilkenny mail,

    carol.kilkenny@nc3rs.org.uk

    Affiliation: The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London, United Kingdom

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  • Nick Parsons,

    Affiliation: Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Ed Kadyszewski,

    Affiliation: Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Michael F. W. Festing,

    Affiliation: Animal Procedures Committee, London, United Kingdom

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  • Innes C. Cuthill,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Derek Fry,

    Affiliation: Animals Scientific Procedures Inspectorate, Home Office, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom

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  • Jane Hutton,

    Affiliation: Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Douglas G. Altman

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: November 30, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007824
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Carol Kilkenny
The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London, United Kingdom
Nick Parsons
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
Ed Kadyszewski
Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, United States of America
Michael F. W. Festing
Animal Procedures Committee, London, United Kingdom
Innes C. Cuthill
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Derek Fry
Animals Scientific Procedures Inspectorate, Home Office, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom
Jane Hutton
Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
Douglas G. Altman
Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: carol.kilkenny@nc3rs.org.uk

Competing Interests

Dr Michael Festing was a member of the NC3Rs Board from September 2004 to July 2007. Members of the NC3Rs board are not remunerated. In addition Dr Festing would like to declare that he teaches short courses on the design and statistical analysis of animal experiments to scientists who are applicants for Home Office licences, for which he is paid. There are no competing interests for any of the other authors.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MF JH DGA. Performed the experiments: CK NP EK MF. Analyzed the data: CK NP EK MF IC DF JH DGA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NP. Wrote the paper: CK. Commented on the manuscript: IC DF DGA.