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Research Article

Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem

  • Thomas W. Plummer mail,

    thomas.plummer@qc.cuny.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Queens College and NYCEP, Flushing, New York, United States of America

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  • Peter W. Ditchfield,

    Affiliation: Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Laura C. Bishop,

    Affiliation: Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • John D. Kingston,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Joseph V. Ferraro,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America

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  • David R. Braun,

    Affiliation: Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebsoch, South Africa

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  • Fritz Hertel,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, California, United States of America

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  • Richard Potts

    Affiliations: Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., United States of America, Paleontology Section, Earth Sciences Department, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Published: October 21, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007199

About the Authors

Thomas W. Plummer
Department of Anthropology, Queens College and NYCEP, Flushing, New York, United States of America
Peter W. Ditchfield
Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Laura C. Bishop
Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
John D. Kingston
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Joseph V. Ferraro
Department of Anthropology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America
David R. Braun
Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebsoch, South Africa
Fritz Hertel
Department of Biology, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, California, United States of America
Richard Potts
Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., United States of America
Richard Potts
Paleontology Section, Earth Sciences Department, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

Corresponding Author

Email: thomas.plummer@qc.cuny.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TWP PWD LCB JDK JVF DRB FH RBP RBP. Performed the experiments: TWP PWD LCB JDK JVF DRB FH. Analyzed the data: TWP PWD LCB JDK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RBP RBP. Wrote the paper: TWP.