About the Authors
- Dennis vanEngelsdorp
- Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America
- Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Chris Mullin, Maryann Frazier, Jim Frazier, Diana Cox-Foster, Robyn Underwood
- Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
- Claude Saegerman
- Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk analysis applied to the Veterinary Sciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
- Eric Haubruge, Bach Kim Nguyen
- Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium
- Jay D. Evans, Yanping Chen, Jeffery S. Pettis
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America
- David R. Tarpy
- Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Conceived and designed the experiments: Dv JSP. Performed the experiments: Dv JDE CM MF JF DRT. Analyzed the data: Dv CS EH BKN RMU. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JDE CM MF JF DLCF YPC DRT. Wrote the paper: Dv JDE CS CM EH BKN RMU DRT JSP.