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Research Article

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

  • Dennis vanEngelsdorp,

    Affiliations: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jay D. Evans,

    Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Claude Saegerman,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk analysis applied to the Veterinary Sciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium

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  • Chris Mullin,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Eric Haubruge,

    Affiliation: Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium

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  • Bach Kim Nguyen,

    Affiliation: Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium

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  • Maryann Frazier,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jim Frazier,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Diana Cox-Foster,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Yanping Chen,

    Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Robyn Underwood,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • David R. Tarpy,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Jeffery S. Pettis mail

    Jeffery.Pettis@ars.usda.gov

    Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: August 03, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006481

About the Authors

Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Chris Mullin, Maryann Frazier, Jim Frazier, Diana Cox-Foster, Robyn Underwood
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Claude Saegerman
Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk analysis applied to the Veterinary Sciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
Eric Haubruge, Bach Kim Nguyen
Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium
Jay D. Evans, Yanping Chen, Jeffery S. Pettis
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America
David R. Tarpy
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Jeffery.Pettis@ars.usda.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: Dv JSP. Performed the experiments: Dv JDE CM MF JF DRT. Analyzed the data: Dv CS EH BKN RMU. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JDE CM MF JF DLCF YPC DRT. Wrote the paper: Dv JDE CS CM EH BKN RMU DRT JSP.