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Research Article

Low-Abundance HIV Drug-Resistant Viral Variants in Treatment-Experienced Persons Correlate with Historical Antiretroviral Use

  • Thuy Le mail,

    Thuy.Le@yale.edu

    Affiliation: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Jennifer Chiarella,

    Affiliation: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Birgitte B. Simen,

    Affiliation: 454 Life Sciences/Roche, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Bozena Hanczaruk,

    Affiliation: 454 Life Sciences/Roche, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Michael Egholm,

    Affiliation: 454 Life Sciences/Roche, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Marie L. Landry,

    Affiliation: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Kevin Dieckhaus,

    Affiliation: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Marc I. Rosen,

    Affiliations: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Michael J. Kozal

    Affiliations: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Published: June 29, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006079

About the Authors

Thuy Le, Jennifer Chiarella, Marie L. Landry, Marc I. Rosen, Michael J. Kozal
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Birgitte B. Simen, Bozena Hanczaruk, Michael Egholm
454 Life Sciences/Roche, Branford, Connecticut, United States of America
Kevin Dieckhaus
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America
Marc I. Rosen, Michael J. Kozal
VA Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Thuy.Le@yale.edu

Competing Interests

MJK has funding from the NIH, VA and Industry (Merck Co., Bristol Myers Squib, Tibotec, Abbott, and Boehringer-Ingleheim). MJK has received honoraria and speaker fees, including reimbursement for travel and accommodation expenses from Abbott and 454 Life Sciences/Roche. MJK has received royalties from a patent owned by Stanford University for some HIV diagnostic tests. MJK is a consultant for Stanford University, Merck and Shering-Plough Research Institute. KD has received speaker's fees and honoraria for Boehringer-Ingelheim and Gilead. BBS, BH, and ME are employees of 454 Life Sciences/Roche. No competing interest from the other authors.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TL JC MK. Performed the experiments: TL JC BS BH. Analyzed the data: TL MK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BS BH ME ML KD MR MK. Wrote the paper: TL JC BS BH ME ML KD MR MK.