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Research Article

Gene-Network Analysis Identifies Susceptibility Genes Related to Glycobiology in Autism

  • Bert van der Zwaag equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Bert van der Zwaag, Lude Franke

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Lude Franke equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Bert van der Zwaag, Lude Franke

    Affiliations: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands

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  • Martin Poot,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Ron Hochstenbach,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Henk A. Spierenburg,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Jacob A. S. Vorstman,

    Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Emma van Daalen,

    Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Maretha V. de Jonge,

    Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Nienke E. Verbeek,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Eva H. Brilstra,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Ruben van 't Slot,

    Affiliation: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Roel A. Ophoff,

    Affiliation: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Michael A. van Es,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Hylke M. Blauw,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Jan H. Veldink,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Jacobine E. Buizer-Voskamp,

    Affiliations: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Frits A. Beemer,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Leonard H. van den Berg,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Cisca Wijmenga,

    Affiliations: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands

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  • Hans Kristian Ploos van Amstel,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Herman van Engeland,

    Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • J. Peter H. Burbach mail,

    J.P.H.Burbach@Umcutrecht.nl (JPHB); W.Staal@Umcutrecht.nl (WGS)

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Wouter G. Staal mail

    J.P.H.Burbach@Umcutrecht.nl (JPHB); W.Staal@Umcutrecht.nl (WGS)

    Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

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  • Published: May 28, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005324

About the Authors

Bert van der Zwaag, Henk A. Spierenburg, J. Peter H. Burbach
Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Lude Franke, Ruben van 't Slot, Roel A. Ophoff, Jacobine E. Buizer-Voskamp, Cisca Wijmenga
Complex Genetics Section, Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Martin Poot, Ron Hochstenbach, Nienke E. Verbeek, Eva H. Brilstra, Frits A. Beemer, Hans Kristian Ploos van Amstel
Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Jacob A. S. Vorstman, Emma van Daalen, Maretha V. de Jonge, Herman van Engeland, Wouter G. Staal
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Michael A. van Es, Hylke M. Blauw, Jan H. Veldink, Leonard H. van den Berg
Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Jacobine E. Buizer-Voskamp
Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Lude Franke, Cisca Wijmenga
Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BvdZ MP RH CW HKPvA HvE JPHB WGS. Performed the experiments: BvdZ LF MP HAS EvD MdJ NV EHB RvS MAVE HMB JV. Analyzed the data: BvdZ LF MP HAS JASV EvD MdJ NV EHB RvS RO MAVE HMB JV JEBV FAB JPHB WGS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BvdZ LF MP RH JASV EvD MdJ NV EHB HMB JV FAB LHvdB CW HKPvA HvE JPHB WGS. Wrote the paper: BvdZ LF JPHB WGS.