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Research Article

Serum Angiopoietin-1 and -2 Levels Discriminate Cerebral Malaria from Uncomplicated Malaria and Predict Clinical Outcome in African Children

  • Fiona E. Lovegrove,

    Affiliation: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Noppadon Tangpukdee,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Robert O. Opoka,

    Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

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  • Erin I. Lafferty,

    Affiliation: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Nimerta Rajwans,

    Affiliation: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Michael Hawkes,

    Affiliation: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Srivicha Krudsood,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Sornchai Looareesuwan †,

    † Deceased.

    Affiliation: Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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  • Chandy C. John,

    Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • W. Conrad Liles equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: W. Conrad Liles, Kevin C. Kain

    Affiliations: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Kevin C. Kain equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: W. Conrad Liles, Kevin C. Kain

    kevin.kain@uhn.on.ca

    Affiliations: McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: March 20, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004912

About the Authors

Fiona E. Lovegrove, Erin I. Lafferty, Nimerta Rajwans, Michael Hawkes, W. Conrad Liles, Kevin C. Kain
McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Noppadon Tangpukdee, Srivicha Krudsood, Sornchai Looareesuwan
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
Robert O. Opoka
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Chandy C. John
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
W. Conrad Liles, Kevin C. Kain
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: kevin.kain@uhn.on.ca

Competing Interests

The University Health Network holds intellectual property related to the role of angiogenic factors in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The authors report no conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FEL NT ROO SK SL CCJ WCL KCK. Performed the experiments: FEL EIL NR. Analyzed the data: FEL MH CCJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NT ROO SK SL CCJ. Wrote the paper: FEL MH CCJ WCL KCK.