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Research Article

FOXM1 Upregulation Is an Early Event in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and it Is Enhanced by Nicotine during Malignant Transformation

  • Emilios Gemenetzidis,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Amrita Bose,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Adeel M. Riaz,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Tracy Chaplin,

    Affiliation: Cancer Research UK Medical Oncology Laboratory, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Bryan D. Young,

    Affiliation: Cancer Research UK Medical Oncology Laboratory, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Muhammad Ali,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • David Sugden,

    Affiliation: Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Johanna K. Thurlow,

    Affiliation: The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Sok-Ching Cheong,

    Affiliation: Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation (CARIF), 2nd Floor Outpatient Centre, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Selangor, Malaysia

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  • Soo-Hwang Teo,

    Affiliation: Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation (CARIF), 2nd Floor Outpatient Centre, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Selangor, Malaysia

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  • Hong Wan,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ahmad Waseem,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Eric K. Parkinson,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Farida Fortune,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Muy-Teck Teh mail

    m.t.teh@qmul.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 16, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004849

About the Authors

Emilios Gemenetzidis, Amrita Bose, Adeel M. Riaz, Muhammad Ali, Hong Wan, Ahmad Waseem, Eric K. Parkinson, Farida Fortune, Muy-Teck Teh
Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
Tracy Chaplin, Bryan D. Young
Cancer Research UK Medical Oncology Laboratory, Institute of Dentistry, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
David Sugden
Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Johanna K. Thurlow
The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Sok-Ching Cheong, Soo-Hwang Teo
Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation (CARIF), 2nd Floor Outpatient Centre, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding Author

Email: m.t.teh@qmul.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DS MTT. Performed the experiments: EG AB AMR TC MA DS JKT SCC AW MTT. Analyzed the data: EG AB DS JKT SCC HW AW MTT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BDY DS JKT SCC SHT HW AW EKP FF MTT. Wrote the paper: MTT.