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Research Article

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N1 in Africa: A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Isolates

  • Giovanni Cattoli mail,

    gcattoli@izsvenezie.it

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Isabella Monne,

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Alice Fusaro,

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Tony M. Joannis,

    Affiliation: National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

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  • Lami H. Lombin,

    Affiliation: National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

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  • Mona M. Aly,

    Affiliation: National Laboratory for quality control on poultry production, Dokki (Cairo), Egypt

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  • Abdel S. Arafa,

    Affiliation: National Laboratory for quality control on poultry production, Dokki (Cairo), Egypt

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  • Katharine M. Sturm-Ramirez,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville, Ivory Coast

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  • Joseph A. Awuni,

    Affiliation: Accra Veterinary Laboratory, Accra, Ghana

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  • Komla B. Batawui,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central Vétérinaire, Lomé, Togo

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  • Kodzo A. Awoume,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central Vétérinaire, Lomé, Togo

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  • Gilbert L. Aplogan,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Bénin

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  • Adama Sow,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire National d'Elevage, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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  • Andrè C. Ngangnou,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire National Vétérinaire, Garoua, Cameroon

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  • Iman M. El Nasri Hamza,

    Affiliation: Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Djibo Gamatié,

    Affiliation: Direction des Laboratoires Vétérinaires, Niamey, Niger

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  • Gwenaelle Dauphin,

    Affiliation: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, AGAH Division, Rome, Italy

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  • Joseph M. Domenech,

    Affiliation: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, AGAH Division, Rome, Italy

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  • Ilaria Capua

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Published: March 17, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004842

About the Authors

Giovanni Cattoli, Isabella Monne, Alice Fusaro, Ilaria Capua
OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy
Tony M. Joannis, Lami H. Lombin
National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria
Mona M. Aly, Abdel S. Arafa
National Laboratory for quality control on poultry production, Dokki (Cairo), Egypt
Katharine M. Sturm-Ramirez
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann
Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville, Ivory Coast
Joseph A. Awuni
Accra Veterinary Laboratory, Accra, Ghana
Komla B. Batawui, Kodzo A. Awoume
Laboratoire Central Vétérinaire, Lomé, Togo
Gilbert L. Aplogan
Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Bénin
Adama Sow
Laboratoire National d'Elevage, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Andrè C. Ngangnou
Laboratoire National Vétérinaire, Garoua, Cameroon
Iman M. El Nasri Hamza
Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Sudan
Djibo Gamatié
Direction des Laboratoires Vétérinaires, Niamey, Niger
Gwenaelle Dauphin, Joseph M. Domenech
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, AGAH Division, Rome, Italy

Corresponding Author

Email: gcattoli@izsvenezie.it

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GC IC. Performed the experiments: IM AF. Analyzed the data: GC IM AF TJ KMSR IC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TJ LHL MMA ASA KMSR ECH JAA KBB KAA GLA AS ACN IMENH DG GD. Wrote the paper: GC IM AF. Revised the article critically for important intellectual content: JD.