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Research Article

Pre-Columbian Origins for North American Anthrax

  • Leo J. Kenefic equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Leo J. Kenefic, Talima Pearson

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Talima Pearson equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Leo J. Kenefic, Talima Pearson

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Richard T. Okinaka,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • James M. Schupp,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • David M. Wagner,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Jacques Ravel,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Alex R. Hoffmaster,

    Affiliation: Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Carla P. Trim,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Wai-Kwan Chung,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Jodi A. Beaudry,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey T. Foster,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • James I. Mead,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Paul Keim mail

    Paul.Keim@nau.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America, Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Published: March 13, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004813

About the Authors

Leo J. Kenefic, Talima Pearson, Richard T. Okinaka, James M. Schupp, David M. Wagner, Carla P. Trim, Wai-Kwan Chung, Jodi A. Beaudry, Jeffrey T. Foster, James I. Mead, Paul Keim
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America
Jacques Ravel
The Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Alex R. Hoffmaster
Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Paul Keim
Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Paul.Keim@nau.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LJK PK. Performed the experiments: LJK CPT JAB WKC. Analyzed the data: LJK TP CPT JAB WKC PK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TP DMW JR AH. Wrote the paper: LJK TP JF JM PK. Directed the study and edited the manuscript: PK. Provided managerial support for data generation: JS. Provided GIS analysis: DMW. Developed the B. anthracis microarray genotyping assay and screened the initial (128) isolates: JR. Provided the DNA of isolates from an historical collection: AH. Provided valuable insights into phylogenetic analyses and helped edit the manuscript: RO JF. Provided insights into Beringian ecosystems: JM. Edited the manuscript: JM.