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Research Article

New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism

  • Philip D. Gingerich mail,

    gingeric@umich.edu

    Affiliation: Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Munir ul-Haq,

    Affiliation: Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Pakistan

    X
  • Wighart von Koenigswald,

    Affiliation: Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

    X
  • William J. Sanders,

    Affiliation: Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • B. Holly Smith,

    Affiliation: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Iyad S. Zalmout

    Affiliation: Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Published: February 04, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004366
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Philip D. Gingerich, Iyad S. Zalmout
Museum of Paleontology and Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Munir ul-Haq
Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Pakistan
Wighart von Koenigswald
Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany
William J. Sanders
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
B. Holly Smith
Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: gingeric@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Performed the experiments: ISZ. Analyzed the data: PDG MuH WvK WJS BHS. Wrote the paper: PDG MuH WvK WJS BHS ISZ. Participated in field work: PDG MuH ISZ. Contributed geological interpretations: PDG ISZ MuH. Developed chronological framework: PDG MuH ISZ. Carried out functional analysis of skeletons: PDG WJS ISZ. Interpreted life history: PDG BHS.