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Research Article

Germ Warfare in a Microbial Mat Community: CRISPRs Provide Insights into the Co-Evolution of Host and Viral Genomes

  • John F. Heidelberg mail,

    jheidelb@usc.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Marine Environmental Biology Division, Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California, Avalon, California, United States of America

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  • William C. Nelson,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Marine Environmental Biology Division, Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California, Avalon, California, United States of America

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  • Thomas Schoenfeld,

    Affiliation: Lucigen Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Devaki Bhaya

    Affiliation: Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: January 09, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004169

About the Authors

John F. Heidelberg, William C. Nelson
Department of Biological Sciences, Marine Environmental Biology Division, Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Southern California, Avalon, California, United States of America
Thomas Schoenfeld
Lucigen Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin, United States of America
Devaki Bhaya
Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jheidelb@usc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JFH WCN DB. Performed the experiments: JFH DB. Analyzed the data: JFH WCN TS DB. Wrote the paper: JFH WCN TS DB.