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Research Article

Neanderthal Extinction by Competitive Exclusion

  • William E. Banks mail,

    w.banks@ipgq.u-bordeaux1.fr

    Affiliation: Institut de Préhistoire et de Géologie du Quaternaire, UMR 5199-PACEA, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Talence, France

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  • Francesco d'Errico,

    Affiliations: Institut de Préhistoire et de Géologie du Quaternaire, UMR 5199-PACEA, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Talence, France, Institute for Human Evolution, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • A. Townsend Peterson,

    Affiliation: Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America

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  • Masa Kageyama,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement/IPSL, UMR 1572, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, CE Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

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  • Adriana Sima,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement/IPSL, UMR 1572, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, CE Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

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  • Maria-Fernanda Sánchez-Goñi

    Affiliation: EPHE, UMR5805-EPOC, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Talence, France

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  • Published: December 24, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003972

About the Authors

William E. Banks, Francesco d'Errico
Institut de Préhistoire et de Géologie du Quaternaire, UMR 5199-PACEA, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Talence, France
Francesco d'Errico
Institute for Human Evolution, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
A. Townsend Peterson
Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America
Masa Kageyama, Adriana Sima
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement/IPSL, UMR 1572, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, CE Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Maria-Fernanda Sánchez-Goñi
EPHE, UMR5805-EPOC, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Talence, France

Corresponding Author

Email: w.banks@ipgq.u-bordeaux1.fr

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WEB. Performed the experiments: WEB. Analyzed the data: WEB Fd ATP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK AS MFSG. Wrote the paper: WEB Fd ATP MK MFSG.