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Research Article

HIV-1 Tat Activates Neuronal Ryanodine Receptors with Rapid Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization

  • John P. Norman,

    Affiliations: Center for Neural Development and Disease, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology (Child Neurology Division), the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Seth W. Perry,

    Affiliations: Center for Neural Development and Disease, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology (Child Neurology Division), the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Holly M. Reynolds,

    Affiliations: Center for Neural Development and Disease, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology (Child Neurology Division), the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Michelle Kiebala,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Karen L. De Mesy Bentley,

    Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Margarita Trejo,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • David J. Volsky,

    Affiliation: Molecular Virology Division, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Sanjay B. Maggirwar,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Stephen Dewhurst,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Eliezer Masliah,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Harris A. Gelbard mail

    harris_gelbard@urmc.rochester.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Neural Development and Disease, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology (Child Neurology Division), the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: November 14, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003731

About the Authors

John P. Norman, Seth W. Perry, Holly M. Reynolds, Harris A. Gelbard
Center for Neural Development and Disease, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
John P. Norman, Seth W. Perry, Holly M. Reynolds, Harris A. Gelbard
Department of Neurology (Child Neurology Division), the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
Karen L. De Mesy Bentley
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
Michelle Kiebala, Sanjay B. Maggirwar, Stephen Dewhurst, Harris A. Gelbard
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
David J. Volsky
Molecular Virology Division, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
Margarita Trejo, Eliezer Masliah
Department of Neurosciences and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: harris_gelbard@urmc.rochester.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JPN SWP SM HAG. Performed the experiments: JPN HMR MK KLdMB MT. Analyzed the data: JPN SWP HMR MK SM SD HAG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KLdMB MT EM. Wrote the paper: JPN DV SD EM HAG.