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Research Article

HIV-1 Activates Macrophages Independent of Toll-Like Receptors

  • Joseph N. Brown,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, Richland, Washington, United States of America

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  • James J. Kohler,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Carter R. Coberley,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Consortium Health Plan, Columbia, Maryland, United States of America

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  • John W. Sleasman,

    Affiliation: Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine and All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, United States of America

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  • Maureen M. Goodenow mail

    goodenow@pathology.ufl.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Published: December 02, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003664

About the Authors

Joseph N. Brown, James J. Kohler, Carter R. Coberley, Maureen M. Goodenow
Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
John W. Sleasman
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine and All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: goodenow@pathology.ufl.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JNB JJK CRC JWS MMG. Performed the experiments: JNB JJK CRC. Analyzed the data: JNB JJK CRC JWS MMG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JWS MMG. Wrote the paper: JNB JJK CRC JWS MMG.